Travel through our timeline of major events in Israel's history.
Kings David and Solomon establish a Hebrew kingdom. Solomon builds the first temple.
Alexander the Great conquers Jerusalem.
63 B.C.: Rome, led by Pompey the Great, conquers the region.
Muslim armies take over.
The region comes under Ottoman Turkish rule.
The Balfour Declaration gives British approval to the effort to create a Jewish homeland. After World War I, the area comes under British control, which allows some Jewish settlement.
DMITRI KESSEL—TIME & LIFE PICTURES/GETTY IMAGES
On May 14, the State of Israel is proclaimed. David Ben-Gurion is its first prime minister. Neighboring Arab countries declare war, but Israel survives.
In response to Arab threats, Israel attacks Egypt. After what becomes the Six-Day War, Israel occupies the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Sinai Peninsula, and Syria's Golan Heights, and extends its control to all of Jerusalem.
On October 6, during a Jewish holy day, Egypt attacks territory occupied by Israel. The conflict is known as the Yom Kippur War.
Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin sign the U.S.-sponsored Camp David Accords. The countries sign a peace treaty on March 26, 1979.
Israel invades Lebanon to drive out Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) fighters who are attacking northern Israel.
A Palestinian uprising against Israel starts in the West Bank and Gaza.
MANOOCHER DEGHATI—AFP/GETTY IMAGES
The PLO and Israel agree to recognize each other's existence. The treaty is known as the Oslo Accords.
Jordan and Israel sign a peace treaty.
The Palestinians and Israelis continue to trade attacks. The U.S. tries to restart the peace process.
Benjamin Netanyahu becomes Prime Minister.
In December, a forest fire rages for four days in northern Israel. It is the biggest and deadliest in Israel’s history.