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Their Day in Court


This summer, a group of kids in Montana took the state to court over climate change—and won. On August 14, Judge Kathy Seeley issued her decision. She said the state’s support of fossil fuels fossil fuels fuels formed in the earth by plant or animal remains (noun) Most cars run on gasoline, which is made from fossil fuels. violated the kids’ right to a clean environment.

Montana is a major producer of gas and coal. Seeley ruled that greenhouse-gas emissions greenhouse-gas emissions gases released by automobiles and industry that trap heat in the Earth’s atmosphere and contribute to climate change (noun) Windmills can help decrease greenhouse-gas emissions. were “a substantial factor” in harming the environment. State officials will now have to consider climate change when deciding whether to approve fossil-fuel projects.

ROLL CALL The plaintiffs pose for a photo outside the courthouse in Helena, Montana, on June 12.


The case is called Held v. Montana. It’s the first in the United States to decide that governments have a duty to protect citizens from climate change. There were 16 plaintiffs. They ranged in age from 5 to 22.

Kian Tanner was a plaintiff. He’s 18. He spent his childhood playing in Montana’s forests. “Climate change is going to affect kids for generations to come,” he told TIME for Kids. “This case sets a precedent for the United States—and the world—for how to act on climate change now.”

Taking the Stand

Montana is a big producer of fossil fuels. But it has a history of environmentalism. The state’s constitution gives Montanans “the right to a clean and healthful environment.” It also says the government must protect the environment “for present and future generations.”

SMOKESTACKS Gas emissions rise from a coal-burning power plant in Colstrip, Montana, in 2013.


Montana lawmakers have ignored that language when creating energy policies. During the trial, lawyers for the state argued that its emissions were tiny compared with the rest of the planet’s. They hardly make a difference, they said.

Rikki Held was the lead plaintiff. She’s 22. “I know climate change is a global issue,” she told the court. “But Montana needs to take responsibility for our part.”

FIELD NOTES Climate change affects the health of animals like these cattle in Fishtail, Montana.


Scientists took the stand. They described the harmful effects of rising temperatures in the state. They said kids’ health was at stake. The state’s lawyers did not contest the evidence. “They accepted that the science on climate change is very clear,” says Andrea Rodgers. She’s a lawyer who represented the kids. “Truth matters.”

WARMING SIGNS Montana’s mountains have had less snowpack because of warming temperatures.


Trials Ahead

Montana’s government plans to appeal. “Montanans can’t be blamed for changing the climate,” a spokesperson says.

GETTING READY Lead plaintiff Rikki Held (center) talks with lawyers before the trial starts, in June.


But Held v. Montana could influence how other cases are decided. Young people in Hawaii, Utah, and Virginia have filed similar suits. A case in Oregon has been brought against the U.S. government. It could go to trial next year.

For Tanner, the Montana case is proof of what young people can accomplish. “This wasn’t a fight I wanted to have,” he says. “But if the responsibility falls on my generation, we’ll take it. I don’t want other kids to have to deal with the pain and suffering that climate change causes.”

Global Movement


Around the world, young people are taking governments to court over climate change. This photo shows members of the youth-led group Aurora. It’s suing the government of Sweden.

A case is currently being heard at the European Court of Human Rights, in France. Six youths from Portugal are suing 32 European countries. Similar cases could take place in Asia and South America. That adds to a growing number of climate-change cases worldwide.