TFK asked two experts to weigh in on homework.
Janine Bempechat teaches human development and psychology at Wheelock College, in Massachusetts. Below, she explains why homework serves an important purpose for students of all ages.
Etta Kralovec teaches education at the University of Arizona. She is also a coauthor of the book The End of Homework. Here, she argues that homework is a waste of time.
RICHARD NESTEAD—GETTY IMAGES
By Janine Bempechat
Particularly for elementary school, homework has become a debated issue. That is because studies show that doing homework does not necessarily improve younger students’ grades.
Still, many teachers and parents are in favor of homework in elementary school. They view it as a way for kids to review what they are learning in school. They also see it as a way for students to develop the learning habits and study skills they will need later on. Homework helps you practice how to plan your time and manage distractions. It teaches you to keep trying when learning becomes difficult.
Research shows that homework pays off. Students who put effort into their homework are better at managing their time. When they begin middle school and high school, they are more positive about learning than other students. They also do much better in school.
This payoff may not appear during the elementary school years. But that doesn’t mean homework should be abandoned. Instead, educators should focus on designing high-quality, enjoyable homework. It should be challenging in the best sense of the word.
By Etta kralovec
I hated homework when I was in elementary school. And I hated it even more as a parent. I think my kids and I argued more about homework than about anything else.
Now that I’m an educator, I spend a lot of time in schools. When it comes to homework, there is still a lot of disagreement. And it’s not just students who are unhappy. Many teachers and parents tell me they think homework is a waste of time. I couldn’t agree more.
Homework has been around about as long as there have been schools. You may be surprised to know that it was not always popular. In 1905, California banned homework for students under 15. In the 1920s, doctors formed a group called Physicians Against Homework. They said homework kept kids inside. This prevented them from getting exercise and fresh air. More recently, researchers at Stanford University found that it causes considerable stress in students’ lives.
My colleagues and I have put together healthy homework guidelines. We hope these will spark conversation between teachers, parents, and students. We hope they will eventually lead to common-sense solutions.